November 18th 1886: Chester Arthur dies
On this day in 1886, the former President of the United States Chester A. Arthur died. Arthur became the 21st President in 1881 upon the assassination of President James A. Garfield. He served until 1885 and his tenure is best remembered for civil service reform tackling the corrupt ‘spoils system’ with the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act. Arthur was suffering from declining health when he left office after the 1884 election, which he did not contest, was won by Democrat Grover Cleveland. He died the following year aged 57.
November 4th 1979: Iran hostage crisis begins
On this day in 1979, the Iran hostage crisis began when a group of Iranians invaded the US embassy in Tehran and took 90 hostages, including 53 Americans. The United States government under Democratic President Jimmy Carter attempted negotiations and when these broke down attempted a rescue in Operation Eagle Claw in 1980 which failed. The hostages were finally freed after the signing of the Algiers Accords just minutes after Republican Ronald Reagan was sworn into office in 1981.
October 14th 1912: Roosevelt shot
On this day in 1912, Theodore Roosevelt was shot whilst making a campaign speech in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Roosevelt, who served as President from 1901 to 1909 was attempting to run for a third term for his Bull Moose Party. He lost the election to Democrat Woodrow Wilson. He was shot by John Schrank, a mentally disturbed saloon keeper, who claimed he was told to kill Roosevelt by the ghost of former President William McKinley. When Schrank shot Roosevelt, the bullet lodged in his chest after hitting his eyeglass case and a copy of his speech he was carrying in his jacket. Roosevelt decided to continue the speech, as he could tell from the lack of blood when he coughed that the bullet had not pierced his lung. He spoke for ninety minutes after being shot. Doctors concluded the wound was not serious and the bullet remained in Roosevelt until his death.
"I don’t know whether you fully understand that I have just been shot; but it takes more than that to kill a Bull Moose."
October 5th 1947: First televised White House address
On this day in 1947, US President Harry S. Truman gave the first televised address from the White House. He and his cabinet used the address to ask Americans to refrain from eating meat on Tuesdays and poultry and eggs on Thursdays to stockpile food for Europe’s starving. At this time there were only around 44,000 TV sets in American homes. The speech was the first of the now regular presidential addresses on television.
September 14th 1901: McKinley dies
On this day in 1901, William McKinley died and Theodore Roosevelt succeeded him as President of the United States. McKinley died after being shot by Leon Czolgosz and developing gangrene from the wounds. As his family and friends gathered at his deathbed, Vice President Roosevelt was rushed to Buffalo. Upon McKinley’s death, Roosevelt took the oath of office at a friend’s house and thereby became President. He was only 42, and is still the youngest ever President. Roosevelt served two terms and remained President until 1909.
August 10th 1988: Civil Liberties Act of 1988 signed
On this day in 1988 US President Ronald Reagan signed the Civil Liberties Act of 1988. The legislation provided reparations to Japanese-Americans who were interned in camps during the Second World War and issued an apology. Each survivor received $20,000; payments began in 1990. The bill received mostly Democratic votes, with most Republican members of Congress voting against it.
July 31st 1875: Andrew Johnson dies
On this day in 1875 Andrew Johnson died from a stroke in Tennessee. Vice-President Johnson became President on April 15th 1865 upon the death of Abraham Lincoln. Thus Johnson had to lead the country into the post-Civil War Reconstruction era. Johnson is mostly remembered as the first President to be impeached, but he was acquitted by a single vote in the Senate. He left office in 1869, and has typically placed very low on historical rankings. He returned to the Senate in March 1875, and is the only President to have done so. Upon his death, he was buried with a copy of the Constitution with his body wrapped in an American flag.
July 26th 1948: Desegregation of US military
On this day in 1948, President Harry S. Truman signed Executive Order 9981 to abolish racial discrimination in the military. This led to the desegregation of the military. Full civil desegregation in the United States did not begin until after the 1954 Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education which ruled segregation unconstitutional.
November 17th 1973: Nixon says “I am not a crook”
On this day in 1973, 40 years ago today, US President Richard M. Nixon told a group of Associated Press reporters during a televised question and answer session in Orlando, Florida that “I am not a crook”. This came in the context of the revelations about illegal activities by his administration in what came to be known as the Watergate scandal. It was named for the building complex which contained the Democratic National Committee headquarters which Nixon officials broke into to find out about their electoral strategies. By 1974, it became clear that Nixon had knowledge of the illegal activities, after the Supreme Court ordered he release tapes of his Oval Office coversations. He resigned in August in order to avoid almost certain impeachment.
"People have got to know whether or not their President is a crook. Well, I’m not a crook. I’ve earned everything I’ve got"
October 31st 1941: Mount Rushmore completed
On this day in 1941, after 14 years of construction, Mount Rushmore was completed. Mount Rushmore, which lies near Keystone in South Dakota, now bears the faces of four US Presidents: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln. The idea for the carving had been around for years before Danish-American sculptor Gutzon Borglum and his son Lincoln were hired and the project received federal funding. The initial plans were for the entire torsos of the Presidents to be carved, as opposed to just their faces. Borglum even envisioned having a timeline of great events in US history running alongside the faces and a ‘Hall of Records’ in a chamber cut into the rock behind the faces. However, the project ran out of money leading to its early completion in October 1941. Mount Rushmore remains a major attraction in the United States, attracting millions of visitors every year.
October 11th 1884: Eleanor Roosevelt born
On this day in 1884 Eleanor Roosevelt was born in New York City. She married her cousin Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1905. Eleanor was actively involved in her husband’s political career, and encouraged him to continue in politics after his partial paralysis from polio in 1921. Franklin was elected President of the United States in 1932 and served as President from 1933 until his death in 1945. Eleanor was a very active First Lady, openly campaigning for greater rights for women and African Americans. After FDR’s death, Eleanor was a US delegate to the United Nations, and chaired the UN Commission on Human Rights. In this capacity she oversaw the creation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Eleanor Roosevelt died in 1962 aged 78.
October 2nd 1919: Wilson’s stroke
On this day in 1919 the President of the United States Woodrow Wilson suffered a stroke. Wilson became President in 1913 and during his tenure pushed several progressive reforms such as the Federal Reserve Act, curtailing child labor and pushing for female suffrage. However, despite being considered a liberal Democrat in his day, Wilson held deeply racist views and implemented segregation. Wilson also oversaw America’s role in the First World War and at the end of the war advocated for the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations, which Congress later rejected. His stroke in October left him paralyzed on the left side and blind in his left eye. His wife and his chief of staff essentially took over the office after this, and arranged as few meetings as possible with the President and fake interviews in order to hide the severity of his condition. The Republicans won by a landslide in 1920 and Wilson left office. He died on February 3rd 1924 aged 67, and only after his death did the public learn the full extent of his incapacity.
September 6th 1901: McKinley shot
On this day in 1901, US President William McKinley was shot by anarchist Leon Czolgosz at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. The President died from gangrene which developed from the bullet wounds on September 14th and was succeeded by his Vice-President, Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt was only 42 when he became President, making him the youngest man to assume the office. McKinley was reluctant to accept security protection, and after his assassination Congress officially charged the Secret Service with the duty of protecting the President.
"We are all going, we are all going. God’s will be done, not ours."
- McKinley’s last words
August 6th 1965: Voting Rights Act signed
On this day in 1965, US President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act into law. The Act is a landmark piece of civil rights legislation which prohibits discrimination in voting. Along with the 1964 Civil Rights Act, the Voting Rights Act made up the core legislatative achievements of the Civil Rights Movement. In Shelby County v. Holder (2013), the US Supreme Court struck down the section of the Act which contained the formula for determining which states must have any changes to their voting laws approved by the federal government. Thus, the Act is essentially rendered impotent, and states with a history of racial discrimination no longer have to clear their voting laws with the federal government.
July 30th 1965: LBJ signs Social Security Act
On this day in 1965, US President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the 1965 Social Security Act into law, which established Medicare and Medicaid. Thus, health insurance in the US was extended to the elderly and the poor. The legislation was a key part of Johnson’s ‘Great Society’ programme, which also included ground-breaking civil rights legislation. The signing ceremony took place in Independence, Missouri, and was attended by Harry S. Truman, who had tried to achieve a similar goal during his presidency.