July 29th 1899: First Hague Convention signed
On this day in 1899, the First Hague Convention was signed at the international peace conference at The Hague in the Netherlands. Together with the Second Hague Convention in 1907, these two conventions make up the foundation of international laws regarding the conduct of war. The first conference was called at the suggestion of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, and the second by US President Theodore Roosevelt. Most of the provisions of the Hague Conventions were violated during the First World War.
March 5th 1946: ‘Iron Curtain’ speech
On this day in 1946, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill made his famous ‘Iron Curtain’ speech at Westminster College, Missouri. The term had been used prior to 1946, but this was the most public use of it. In the ‘Sinews of Peace’ address, Churchill used the term ‘iron curtain’ to reference a Soviet dominated Eastern Europe. At the time, the West still saw the Soviet Union as an ally after the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War Two, but Churchill’s speech heralded the onset of the Cold War tensions between the capitalist West and communist Russia. As the Cold War took hold, the phrase became popular as a reference to repressive Communist domination of Europe which hid Soviet actions and set a clear divide in Europe.
"From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the continent”
September 24th 768: Charlemagne crowned King of the Franks
On this day in 768 Charlemagne was crowned as the King of the Franks. He succeeded his father Pepin the Short and initially ruled alongside his brother Carloman I. However upon Carloman’s death in 771, Charlemagne became the sole King of the Franks. As king and, after his coronation in 800, as Holy Roman Emperor, Charlemagne ruthlessly expanded his kingdom and spread Christianity throughout Europe. His empire set the foundations of modern Europe and thus many consider him the ‘father of Europe’.
July 12th 1536: Erasmus dies
On this day in 1536, the Dutch theologian Desiderius Erasmus died in Basel aged 69. Erasmus was a prominent humanist thinker, and advocated religious toleration. Whilst not an ally of Protestant reformer Martin Luther, Erasmus did advocate Church reform to combat corruption. The Erasmus programme, which enables European university students to travel and learn in different universities around Europe is named after him.
June 8th 793: Viking invasion of England begins
On this day in 793, Vikings raided the abbey at Lindisfarne in Northumbria, thus beginning the Scandinavian invasion of England. The abbey was a famous centre of learning across the continent, and many of the resident monks were killed by the Vikings and the abbey’s treasures were taken. The invasion shocked the Christian West and alerted Europe to the Viking threat; many consider it the beginning of the Viking Age.
“Never before has such an atrocity been seen”
- Alcuin of York, 793
April 2nd 742: Charlemagne born
On this day in 742, the Frankish King Charlemagne was born in Liège. Charlemagne, also known as Charles the Great, became King in 768 upon the death of his father Pepin. Charlemagne initially co-ruled with his brother Carloman I until his death in 771, which left Charles as sole King. Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day 800. His military conquests created an empire which united a lot of modern Europe and he is thus known as the ‘father of Europe’. He died in 814.
December 4th 771: Carloman dies
On this day in 771, Carloman I died and thus left his brother Charlemagne (see picture) sole king of the Franks. Carloman and Charlemagne were the sons of King Pippin III and they split his Frankish kingdom upon their father’s death; this led to a high level of animosity between the brothers. Upon Carloman’s death, Charlemagne became the sole Frankish king. As King, and from 800 as Holy Roman Emperor, Charlemagne greatly expanded the Frankish Empire through military conquests, and his empire set the foundations for modern Europe; he has thus been called ‘father of Europe’.
200 years ago - June 24th 1812: Napoleon’s invasion of Russia begins
On this day in 1812, 200 years ago, Napoleon’s Grand Armee crossed the Neman River, thus beginning his invasion of Russia. This ill-planned invasion was a major turning point in the Napoleonic Wars as France’s failure weakened Napoleon’s army and his reputation. Napoleon had failed to supply his army well, and the Russian scorched earth policy didn’t allow the French to ‘live off the land’ as they previously had. Thus, the Grand Armee was poorly supplied and this was exacerbated by the onset of Russian Winter; almost 400,000 French soldiers died. Napoleon abandoned the invasion and it ended in December 1812. This very significant event in European and world history occurred 200 years ago.
May 24th 1956: First Eurovision
On this day in 1956, the first Eurovision Song Contest (then known as the Eurovision Grand Prix) was held in Lugano, Switzerland. The idea for the event came about in a 1955 meeting of the European Broadcasting Union in Monaco, after they were inspired by the Sanremo Music Festival in Italy. The first ever Eurovision broadcast lasted for one almost two-hour show on May 24th, primarily broadcast over radio. The event saw seven European countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Switzerland) submit two songs each. The winner was picked by a jury panel made up of representatives from the participating countries who voted for their favourite song in secret. In 1956, the prize went to Switzerland’s own Lys Assia with the song 'Refrain'. The tradition of the Eurovision song contest continues annually to this day, though the format is very different to how it was in 1956 - most notably the increased number of participant countries (37 took part this year), the fact that each country only enter one song each, and the points system. The 2014 Eurovision contest was won by Austria’s Conchita Wurst for the song 'Rise Like a Phoenix'.
February 7th 1992: Maastricht Treaty signed
On this day in 1992 the European Union was brought into being by the signing of the Maastricht Treaty. It was signed by the twelve members of the European Community - a precursor to the EU. The treaty was named for the city in the Netherlands where it was drafted and signed. Maastricht became effective on November 1st 1993, and on that day the EU was formally established. It also provided for common security and foreign policy and gave the people of the signatory states European citizenship. Most importantly, Maastricht provided a blueprint for the later monetary union seen in the establishment of the common currency: the Euro. Whilst the signing occurred without event, the ratification of the Maastricht Treaty was more contentious, with many states struggling to ratify it.
July 24th 1923: Treaty of Lausanne signed
On this day in 1923 the Treaty of Lausanne was signed in Switzerland. The treaty ended the war between Turkey and the Allied powers, which had raged since the start of the First World War in 1914. This makes it the last peace treaty of the Great War. Lausanne also settled the borders of modern Turkey. In January 1923, Greece and Turkey had signed a population exchange treaty at Lausanne, leading to one of the largest forced migrations in history, with the expulsion of Greek Orthodox Turks and Muslim Greeks.
June 20th 840: Louis the Pious
On this day in 840, King of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor Louis the Pious died in Ingelheim died aged 61/62. Louis succeeded his father Charlemagne upon his death in 814. He was the sole ruler of the Franks from 814 until his death. The Frankish Empire plunged into civil war upon his death, with his sons fighting for control of the Empire.
June 7th 1099: Siege of Jerusalem begins
On this day in 1099 during the First Crusade, the Siege of Jerusalem began. The Crusade was called by Pope Urban II in 1095 to rid the Holy Land of Muslim presence. The siege of Jerusalem lasted until July 15th and saw the Crusaders capture the holy city from Fatmid Egypt. It was after this siege that the Crusaders massacred much of Jerusalem’s population, with some sources from the time claiming the blood in the streets reached their ankles and even the bridles of their horses.
January 13th 888: Charles the Fat dies
On this day in 888 the Carolingian Emperor Charles III, known as Charles the Fat, died aged 48. He was Charlemagne’s great-grandson and ruled the Carolingian Empire from 881, when he was crowned Emperor, until 888. He was deposed by his nephew shortly before his death and the formerly large and united Carolingian Empire fell apart after his death.
October 31st 1517: Luther posts his 95 theses
On this day in 1517, the Augustinian monk Martin Luther posted his 95 theses on the door of a Church in Wittenberg, Germany. This event is generally considered the start of the Protestant Reformation. The theses expressed Luther’s dissatisfaction with the corruption and materialism of the Catholic Church, especially the sale of indulgences (essentially selling a ticket to heaven). He instead believed that eternal salvation can only be guaranteed by God. On the same day as supposedly posting the 95 theses on the church door, he sent his writings to bishops. The writings were gradually translated and spread throughout Europe, accelerated by the use of the printing press, and his ideas transformed Europe. The Reformation led to the establishment of Protestantism.